- IMPORTANCE OF KITCHEN IN EVERY
- Kitchen plays a very important role
in each and every household.It is the place were the food is
cooked and the Homemaker spends most of the time preparing meals
for the family members.Kitchens may be of different shapes or
sizes but its purpose remains the same all the time.It is the
place which has lots of cooking equipments and utensils,so proper
planning and safety of the kitchen should be done.Apart from
this proper sanitation of the kitchen should also be maintained
so that they donot become an unhygienic spot of the house.
- KITCHEN SAFETY
- It is important that there should be
safety in work as part of good kitchen management.A housewife
should be alert in the kitchen and also should be aware of the
safety measures to prevent accidents there.As most housewives
spend much of their time in the kitchen it is obvious that children
of all age groups would also be there.Therefore it should be
a safe place for people working in it and also for people who
come there.The following are some steps that should be taken
to ensure safety in the kitchen:
- 1. The Kitchen Floor - It should be dry,free from grease,skins of
fruits and vegetables,otherwise there is a chance of slipping
and causing a fall.
2. Equipment - All the sharp equipments like can-openers,knives,graters
should be stored in a drawer.After cleaning they must be put
away safely.Wooden Boards should be used for cutting vegetables
and fruits to avoid bruising of fingers.Strong footstools should
be used to remove articles from top shelves.All the utensils
should be used as per the manufacturer's directions.A cover on
pans when pouring out hot liquid prevents scalding.
- 3. The Stove -
It is essential to know the technique of operating the stove
safely whether the fuel used is wood,coal,kerosene,gas or electricity.When
wood is used,a chimney should draw away the smoke from the soot.In
the case of coal stoves ( Chullas ),it should be lighted in open
air to prevent the poisonous carbon monoxide being produced inside
the kitchen.In the case of kerosene stove,the burner should be
hot before it is pumped.In a wick stove,the wick should be well
soaked in kerosene to prevent sooty flames arising.When gas is
used then the valve on the cylinder should be closed when not
in use.A gas stove should be lit when the gas is turned on full.If
the burner doesnot ignite with a lighted matchstick or lighter
then turn it off,wait for a minute and repeat once again.If the
kitchen is equipped with an electrical chimney,then it should
be switched on while cooking food.The knobs of all the burners
of the cooking range should be closed after the food has been
- 4. Clothes - While
cooking,it is dangerous to wear synthetis garments or bangles
made of inflammable materials.Handles of pots and pans should
be turned backwards to prevent brushing against them or their
getting caught in the clothing.
- 5. Labelling of Containers - It is important to label containers as a safety
measure against wrong usuage.Containers containing harmful chemicals
such as insecticides,pesticides should be of different shapes
and colours and should always be labelled.They should be easily
distinguished from those containing food items.Moreover,they
should be in a separate cupboard,out of reach from children and
never in the food store.
- 6. First Aid Box - A first aid box should be kept in the kitchen
with all the essentials in it like band-aid,cotton wool pads,antiseptic
cream,antiseptic lotion etc. A knowledge of safety measures helps
one to guard against various hazards in everyday life.It not
only ensures personal safety but is also a social responsibility.
- SANITATION IN THE KITCHEN
- The kitchen is the place where the
food is cooked.Hence it is very essential to maintain proper
sanitary measures in the work area.A kitchen which is dust proof,pest
proof,insect proof and dirt proof is an ideal kitchen.Proper
cleanliness has to be maintained all over the kitchen-it's floors,walls,work
and storage area.
- It is important that the floor in the
kitchen should be non-slippery,washable and not too smooth.The
walls should be easily washable and easy to keep clean and should
be free from crevices.
- The garbage in the kitchen should be
kept in tightly closed dustbins otherwise it would cause breeding
of flies.Their should be wire netting on doors and windows and
the actual work area should be made of material which could be
- A clean tidy kitchen,clean clothes
and clean hands are the housewife's responsibility.The utensils
used in the preparation of the food should be clean and any spillage
should be wiped out immediately.Daily cleaning procedures should
include the floors,the tiles on the walls,the area behind the
cooking unit,sink and working areas.In addition to this weekly
or fortnightly schedules may be carried out.The cooking range,electrical
gadgets,the refrigerator and other similar equipment may perhaps
be cleaned at such intervals.
- A certain procedure adopted in dish
washing will make it less irksome:
1. Remove any leftovers before cleaning.
2. Scrup well with the help of scrubber,wire mesh,or cleaning
3. First rinse with cold water and then with hot water so that
if there is any grease it gets removed completely.
4. Dry well in air and then using a clean napkin or cloth wipe
and keep in storage racks.
- SOME BASIC UTENSILS USED
IN THE KITCHEN
- 1. Blenders
- It is used to blend and puree
various ingredients.They are available in the market under various
brand names.A good brand of blender should be purchased.
- 2. Bowls -
These could be made of stainless steel,porcelain,glass,earthenware
and are used to perform various tasks like mixing,holding,marinating
of various ingredients.Deep bowls should be used to avoid spillage.
- 3. Baking Dishes and Pans - These are used for baking and they go into
they go into the oven so they should be flameproof.
- 4. Chakla -
Chakla is a Hindi term for dough rolling board.It is round in
shape and could be made of wood,marble or steel and is used for
rolling chapattis.Belan or rolling pin is used to roll the dough.
- 5. Cake Pans -
These are used to bake cakes
and could be of various shapes and sizes.They are made of aluminium
or dark metal.
- 6. Colander -
These are used for washing and cleaning of vegetables,fruits
and other ingredients.They are also used for straining solids
from liquids.They are generally made of stainless steel.
- 7. Casseroles - These are used to hold prepared dishes and
they have tight lids over them.Some of them could be used directly
for cooking and baking and others could be used to hold prepared
dishes and to keep them warm.
Chopping Board - These are used
to chop and cut various ingredients used in cooking.They are
available in number of sizes and could be nmade of wood or white
- 9. Chalni - This
is a very common type of kitchen utensil which has fine mesh
in it and is fitted with a handle.it is available in various
sizes and is used for straining and sifting.
- 10. Chimta -
It is a Hindi term and it is
like a handle which is used for holding Indian breads.It is basically
like a tong.
- 11. Food Processor - This is an electrical
appliance which is replacing mixies and blenders in the kitchen.It
is used for cutting,chopping,pureeing,blending,kneading of various
ingredients and is available under a number of brand names.
- 12. Forks -
Forks are also used in the kitchen for blending and mashing food.Sturdy
forks should always be used.
Frying Pans - These
are used for frying food.They have slopped sides and could be
used for shallow frying food.They are generally made of stainless
steel,cast iron,enameled cast iron and also non-stick material
which uses less fat.
- 14. Graters -
These are made of stainless
steel and have holes in them for various purposes like shredding,grating
( Thick,thin ) of ingredients.They are hand held and should be
- 15. Jharni -
It is a Hindi term and it a broad concave spoon with perforations
in them and is used to remove deep fried food from hot oil.
Kadhai - This
is a Hindi term and is commonly known as Deep Fat Fryer.It is
a wide round utensil and is used for cooking food and also for
deep frying food.It is heavy base and is very similar to Chinese
Wok cast iron,stainless steel nad non-stick material.
Knives - A large variety of
knives are used in the kitchen depending upon its purpose.They
are available in number of sizes and under different names depending
on their use like chef knife,slicing knife,paring knife etc.Table
knife could also be used in the kitchen for cutting through soft
- 18. Loaf Pans - These are rectangular in shape and are used
for baking breads and loaf shaped cake.They are generally made
of aluminium and could be available in variety of sizes.
Ladle - In Hindi it is called
Kadchi and is used for pouring gravy.
- 20. Measuring Cups and Spoons - They are used for accurate measuring of ingredients.They
come in linked sets and are very helpful for measuring ingredients.They
could be made of plastic or steel.
- 21. Muffin Pans - They are used for baking muffins and cup cakes.They
are made of aluminium and non-stick dark surface material.
- 22. Pakkad -
This is a hindi term and it is known as tongs.It is used for
holding hot utensils.
- 23. Patila - It
is a Hindi term for Cooking Pots.In Hindi it is also known as
Handi or Degchi.It could be made of brass or steel.It is used
for boiling liquids and also for making gravies.It could also
be made of non-stick material.'
- 24. Paraat -
It is a Hindi term.Paraat is made of steel and is like a shallow
plate with slopping edges ansd is used for kneading dough.
- 25. Pastry Bag - It is like a pipng bag and is made of plastic
and has lined cloth in it.It has a variety of stainless steel
nozzles of different shapes and sizes which give different decorating
affect on food espically cakes.
- 26. Peelers -
It is also calles peeling knife and is used for peeling fruits
- 27. Potato Mashers - It is made of stainless steel and is used to
mash potatoes and other cooked vegetables.'
- 28. Pie Dish -
These are oven-proof dishes used to bake and serve pies.They
are made of aluminium or porcelain.
- 29. Rolling Pin - In Hindi it is known as Belan.It is used for
rolling the diugh to make chapattis,parathas and other types
- 30. Sauce Pans - It is a tall and narrow pan which is used to
make soups,stocks etc.It comes in a variety of sizes.
- 31. Sieve -
These are made of fine wire mesh and are used to sieve,rinse
and drain ingredients.These come in number of sizes.
- 32. Spatulas - These are made of rubber or wood or metal and
are used for folding,mixing,blending etc.These come in various
shapes and sizes depending on the purpose for which it is being
- 33. Spoons -
These could be made of steel or wood and are used for all purpose
like mixing,stirring,tempering,transferring of food.Table Spoons
could also be used for mixing small quantities of food.
- 34. Strainers - These are used to strain solids form liquids,draining
etc.These are genrally made of stainless steel.
- 35. Spice Rack - This is called Masala Dani in Hindi and it consists
of small boxes which are used to store commom cooking spices
like turmeric powder,red chilli powder,coriander powder,mango
- 36. Tawa - This is a Hindi term .It is like a flat pan
and is also called Griddle.It is used for making Indian Breads
like rotis,chapattis etc.It could also be for dry roasting.
- 37. Thali -
It is a Hindi term and is commonly known as plate.It is used
to eat and serve food.
- 38. Toaster -
It is an electrical appliance and is used for making toasts.
- 39. Tandoor -
It is a Hindi term and is commonly known as Clay Oven.It could
be used to prepare tandoori vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes
and also used to cook Indian breads.A number of kababs could
also be prepared in it.It is most commonly used in restaurants.
- 40. Weights -
It is known as Weighing Scale and is generally made of plastic
.It is used for weighing cooking ingredients.
- 41. Whisks -
It is made of stainless steel and have open wire beaters and
is used for beating eggs,whipping cream and whisking of ingredients.
- 42. Woks -
It is used in Chinese cooking and is used for stir frying food.
- CULINARY TERMS
~ updated 12/02/2000
1. Bake- To
cook by dry heat in a closed chamber or oven. The degree of dryness
of heat may be modified by the amount of steam produced from the
items baked. Bread rolls, cakes, pastries, potatoes, vegetables
etc are baked. The oven temperature should be correct according
to the items that are being baked in it. The Tandoor, most popularly
known as Clay oven which is used in Punjab is a sort of oven and
griller combined together.
To pour melted fat or gravy with a ladle,from time to time,over
meat or other food during roasting or during cooking.This method
is generally used in making kababs.
To mix with brisk horizontal or vertical rotary motion so that
the mixture is lifted again and again and becomes smooth and light
because of the air enclosed. This method is used for making cakes
or making batter for pakodas.
To mix two or more ingredients thoroughly.
Vegetables or fruits or nuts etc are put in hot boiling water
for 2-3 minutes and then drained and again put in ice cold water.This
helps to retain colour of food products and also help in easy
skin removal of food products.This is used generally for retaining
green colour of peas and also in removing skin of the tomatoes.
To cook food by exposing it to direct heat on a hot griddle. This
method is used for broiling of Indian spices.
Burnt sugar used for colouring and flavouring.
To cut into small pieces.Vegetables and fruits are chopped.
To cut into small cubes.
To mix a dry substance into a watery solution or to mix two liquids.For
example making of sugar syrup.
To place small pieces,as of butter, over the surface of the food.
This is done generally to food that has been three fourth cooked
and is in the final stage of cooking. The food is dotted with
butter and then placed in the oven or under the grill to complete
To cook in smoking fat.The fat used should be crystal clear and
free from moisture . Frying is of two types-Shallow frying and
To mix ingredients with a palate knife or wooden spoon by a careful
lifting and dropping motion as in folding whipped egg whites into
To reduce to small fragements by crushing as in grinding spices.
To decorate the prepared food with fancy cut vegetables and fruits.Garnishes
make the food very eye appealing.
To reduce to small shreds or grains by rubbing against a perforated
17. Grill- To
cook by intense direct heat under an electric grill, oven or charcoal.
Meat,fish, mushrooms, tomatoes etc could be grilled.
Extracting flavours of leaves,petals of flowers or rind of fruit
by soaking them in hot water in a covered pan.
19. Knead- To
work dough with both hands so as to stretch it by pressing with
the knuckles and fold over with the fingers. This encloses air
and makes the dough tighter.
To coat the surface of food material with a marinade,which is
usually a mixture of oil,spices,lemon etc.
To crush or to beat to a pulp any soft substance,as for example
To heat a fat until it liquifies.
To cut or chop into very fine and small pieces.For example meat
is minced to make keema matar.
To combine ingredients so that they are evenly distributed.
Half cooked vegetables.For example cabbage, cauliflower, potatoes
etc are cooked by the process of boiling before they are fried
To brown or to roast lightly by means of dry heat;for example,grains
are cooked by parching.
Soft,thick and slightly moist compound produced by grinding or
mixing together a number of ingredients.
28. Pare or Peel- To
remove the outer skin of fruits and vegetables with the help of
Cooked fruit or vegetable reduced to pulp by pressing or passing
through a sieve or by usuing a mixie or blender.
Cooking by exposure to open heat or in a hot oven.
To mix ingredients with an appropriate tool,such as spoon by a
circular motion as in stirring white sauce while cooking.
To cook in a liquid with heat that is sufficient to keep it just
below boiling point.
To cut into narrow pieces by means of a shredder or knife e.g
To cut into thin pieces but not so fine as shredding,e.g slicing
To make a lengthwise cut in the middle of the vegetable e.g slitting
of green chillies.
To remove a floating layer from the liquid by passing a utensil
under it e.g ladle as in skimming cream from milk.
37. Sieve- To pass through a wire
mesh to remove impurities.It also helps in enclosing air and mixing
ingredients evenly like sieveing of flours for cakes.
38. Seal- To
sauté or pre-cook roast to develop colour and flavour.
39. Whip- To
beat with wire egg beater or a mechanical beater usually to incorporate
air ,as in whipping egg white.
Whisking is done when a mixture needs lot of air and the items
are needed to be mixed together so that they do not separate.